Essential Skills – Communication – 7 Barriers to Communication That Can Cause Divorce

When you were dating, communicating with your loved one was so easy. What happened now that you are married? You find you don’t feel so close anymore. Hurt feelings get in the way. Maybe the other just doesn’t seem interested anymore. This is probably due to some of the seven communication barriers below.

TIME

After marriage, couples become busy with their jobs, getting the home nice, perhaps kids come along and they don’t have as much free time to spend with each other. Communication becomes more about catching up with things but not about supporting each other and dreaming about plans together. Lack of time is a definite communication barrier.

DEPTH

When communication seems superficial, it is because the topics are not very emotionally involved such as weather, how was your day, about your past, present or future experiences, movies, and about surface things nothing personal. Satisfying communication that promotes a deep feeling of closeness is Level 2 or 3. Level 1 occurs about 80-90% of the time. Level 2 increases risk as it is about personal things like your ideas, opinions, feelings values and thoughts and averages about 10-20% of conversations. Level 3 which is the most rewarding is unfortunately only 1-2% of communication. Level 3 is validation. Always positive – expressing love, appreciation, respect and gratitude. This is the level that makes us really feel close and loved. To overcome communication barriers of depth, spend more time opening up and appreciating your spouse.

ASSUMPTIONS

Most communication is nonverbal (60%) which leads to people making assumptions as to meaning of these nonverbal clues. The communication barriers of assuming a meaning can lead to a lot of misunderstanding and hurt feelings. Things as simple as how the door was closed, whether a smile was given when arriving, how clean the house is, or a swear word not directed towards anyone can mean a multitude of things. Based on the couple’s history together and even history with prior partners and family growing up, the spouse will interpret a meaning that could be wrong. Then their actions that follow could escalate a situation that didn’t need to if the correct assumption was made.

PREJUDGMENTS

We filter our communication through our beliefs. Barriers to communication are hard to predict based on these prior beliefs. Some are based on gender. If we believe that husbands just act louder, we may find when our husband is louder than usual, we don’t acknowledge that something is wrong but decide they are just acting normal instead of angry. Men may ignore their wives’ crying because they believe that women just cry over everything instead of responding to something being wrong. These prejudices can be over religion, economic status, culture, education and even past history. If we had a prior boyfriend who always behaved a certain way when he felt something, we might assume that our husband will also. When we make a wrong interpretation, we don’t fulfill our spouse’s needs with our actions.

PERSONAL DIFFERENCES

Personal foibles can add to barriers for communication. One spouse might talk fast and like lots of detail while the other spouse is more slow and just covers the basics. One might talk more about future plans while the other likes to reminisce about the past. One might like to think out loud while the other plans carefully before speaking. The awareness of these differences would be solving skills to have.

MALE/FEMALE DIFFERENCES

The communication barriers include certain gender differences between men and women. Men and women talk differently. Men prefer to be actively doing something when they are talking. Men are usually more direct and pointed. Women will tell part of a story and expect men to ask questions or understand. Women are better at looking for meaning by reading between what has been said. They also hint more.

LACK OF UNDERSTANDING

How to overcome communication barriers of misunderstanding is hard because many times the listener doesn’t know they have misunderstood the message. The sender may be feeling hurt, frustrated and feeling like the listener doesn’t care about them so they become more distant and stop talking more. If this continues, couples often find someone else who understands them and leave the marriage to find the love and closeness they desire. THIS DOES NOT NEED TO HAPPEN! Communication skills can be learned and everyone needs to do this.

When, Why and How to Ask for Prepayments and Extra Payments As an Expert Witness

Should you ask for a retainer? Yes, you should. If a case appears simple, a modest retainer fee equivalent to two or three hours of your consulting rate may be fair. You can reduce your initial retainer fee under special circumstances or for limited scope of work. In the same fashion, you can raise your retainer at other times when the initial work will be dramatically larger. After assessing how many hours of initial work you will need to undertake, let that guide you to the size of your retainer.

Be particular about the initial expectations so that you can quantify the initial retainer. Ask, and agree, on the materials you must read, the research or investigations you must complete, and consider what tests you must run. Confirm your understanding with an email, a fax or a letter, depending on the urgency of the work. Then, wait until you've received the retainer check or payment before starting the work. If the attorney tells you that the job is urgent, send him wire transfer information so that he can wire your retainer directly to your bank account. This can easily happen in a 24-hour period.

Always ask for an initial payment before you begin work on a case or you might end up working for nothing. If, by the end of the case, the hours you spent did not consume the retainer, you should refund the difference.

Occidentally an attorney will ask you to do work for free. A free first telephone conversation representatives goodwill and can be an encouragement to engage you when the case seems right. Doing analysis or research for advocates and charging them nothing is unprofessional. On the other hand, you can certainly consider pro-bono work from time to time, just as attorneys occasionally do.

One novel element remains to consider. As your reputation grows, attorneys will sometimes retain you just to be sure that the other side can not employ you. As a result, you should value the use of your name as an expert witness, and considering imposing a minimum fee whenever an attorney wants to retain you. You can apply this minimum charge against services, so it will have no impact on the total cost to the client unless the attorney never uses your services.

In my retainer contract, my terms require both an advance retainer and a replenishment of all or part of the retention from time to time. The amount of replenishment depends on what additional work the attorney requires of me. Some experts require that the attorney or client maintain a minimum retainer. To do so, you should bill to restore that minimum whenever the balance in the pre-paid account for the client falls below a specific level. Ask for new advance payments whenever it becomes similar that additional work will deplete the existing balance in the client's account.

Typically, your client will not have to replenish the retainer if the additional work only requires one to several hours. But you should request advance payment in the following instances:

1. If a sudden surge occurs in discovery materials for your review.

2. If your attorney requests that you travel for conferences and meetings.

3. If any investigations require you to travel to job sites or company offices for observations, meetings, and any other explorations.

4. If your deposition has been scheduled. You will have to reserve a variable number of days in your schedule for the deposition, for a pre-deposition conference, and possibly for the travel time as well.

5. If a trial has been scheduled; you will have the same factors of blocking out time for possible travel, meetings, and testimony.

You should also estimate airfare, hotel, car, and food expenses as well. You can contain those in requested advance payments. If you ask for advance payments, ask for them well in advance. Larger companies often have processing delays for invoices or payment requests. You do not want those delays to stand in the way of your work. Do not wait until the last minute to ask for advance payment. Your business needs to be organized enough to estimate the size of advance payments. You can base those payments on discussions with the attorney about the progress of the case and what work you expect will be required of you.

The most important advance payment is the one that precedes a trial. Be firm in asking for advance payment for your anticipated billings before traveling to testify at a trial. Clients have now spent a large sum of money by the time a trial begins. If the client loses in the trial, he either may not be able, or choose not, to pay you. But because he needs your testimony at the trial, put the pressure on him to pay beforehand and not on you to collect afterwards.

Receiving advance payment for your trial testimony time permits you to respond "No" to the potential cross examining question of whether the client owes you any money.

If the client has now paid you, you can honestly point out that the verdict in the case will have no affect on your testimony.

Classification of Servers

Server is a program which runs on a computer like a service and it fulfills the requirements of other programs which are not installed on the same PC.

Server Computer

This is a computer that is linked with other PC’s or devices and provides necessary network services to the users within an organization or outside users. There are different types of operating systems of hardware which drive or run the server and they are known as server platforms.

There are various types of servers used according to the use. We can discuss on different types of servers as:

Application Servers

An application server is a machine that does the work of connecting two databases or applications. It works like a middleware as a connection medium for two applications. If we take an example then these are the (middleware) products connecting a database system to a web server. Many organizations which are working on and providing various support services like server support, network management, IT management etc. are using different application servers.

Audio-Video Servers

They provide the multimedia features to the websites and allow them to program the streaming content. For transferring data the streaming technique is used and it can be processed steadily and continuously. It is popular today because many users don’t have fast access to download the content quickly. For better streaming the receiver’s side should be able to convert the data into sound and graphics.

Chat Servers

The chat servers allow the users to transfer the data or information within an environment which is similar and offer immediate discussion features. These are working on a real-time technique means immediate response. We can understand it by taking an example of a real-time operating system which responds quickly after getting an input.

FTP Servers

These are one of the Internet features which allow the users to transfer the files securely between the PC’s. The FTP Servers can move one or more than one files providing file security.

Fax Servers

The fax server is software which runs on a server with some fax modems. These are attached with the telephone lines and are capable to transmit the documents as they are to the receivers end. They can receive the information to their own side as well.

Groupware Servers

These servers let the users to interact and work together in a virtual location. They can collaborate together with different locations simultaneously.

IRC Servers

It is also like a chat server. What we chat is depends on the internet relay chat servers, it is like a network allowing the users to chat via different chat servers.

Mail Servers

The mail servers mainly store and move the electronic mails with different networks via LAN, WAN through the Internet.

Proxy Servers & Web Servers

A proxy server works as an intermediary or a computer system which allows other clients to connect with indirect network connections to other network services.

Web server is the hardware and the software which helps and allows the content and information over the internet.

The above information can be useful to those who are studying about servers and also seeking information about managed IT services as well.

History of RF Signal Generators

Radio frequency (RF) signal generators have been around for over 100 years. In 1901, Guglielmo Marconi performed the first radio transmission via Morse code from Cornwall, England to St. Louis. John's, Canada.

In the 1940s, Hewlett-Packard created the first mass-produced generator, the model 200A audio oscillator. The first customer for this product was none other than Walt Disney, who purchased eight of them to calibrate the revolutionary sound system developed specifically for the movie Fantasia.

Radio conductor use and development can be traced back to its roots in the electronic test-and-measurement industry.

Most Common Uses of Radio Frequency Generators

Although RF signal alternators pre-date modern digital technology, they are still used in a variety of tech and science industries in several different ways. Radio frequency signal producers are needed to operate, service and set up analog radio receivers. But it's more than that. When it comes down to it, any equipment that is radio operated required this kind of generator to fully test and ensure proper operation.

Some of the most common uses include testing components, test systems, and receivers for WiFi, WiMAX, cellular communication, GPS, audio and video broadcasting, radar, satellite communication and electronic warfare.

The ones that are used today can be found in the electronics industry, including aerospace / defense electronics and wireless communications. Radar, GPS and avionics signal simulation are other common applications within the aerospace and defense electronics field.

What is Radio Frequency Signal Generation?

Many times, radio frequency generation and microwave generation are used interchangeably. They are different, however, because they operate at different pitches.

RF and microwave generators have similar features and capabilities, but are differentiated by modulation range. RF generators typically range from a few kHz to 1 GHz, although some argument it reaches 6 GHz. The signal generation can be monitored with AM radio frequencies between 535 KHz and 1605 KHz and computer LAN rates up to 2.5 GHz.

Microwave frequencies, on the other hand, have a higher rate that typically ranges from 1 MHz to 20 GHz, with some generators reaching approximately 70 GHz.

There are three types of RF signal generators: analog signal, vector signal and logical signal. Analog generators were used before the advent of modern, digital electronics.

RF conductors are one of 5 types of generators. The other types are: functional signal, arbitrary waveform, audio signal and video signal. Each of them have their own, unique use and functionality.

How Radio Frequency Generators Work

Radio frequency generators operate via a harmonic locked loop that provides adequate, accurate and stable output required for a device to operate correctly. They produce continuous wave tones within a certain range.

These sound detecting devices have become very sophisticated since their creation 100 years ago. As they have gotten more advanced, their uses have become more widespread. They are one of five types of generators that are used in a variety of industries today.